Those who have read my core essay on the new science will be familiar with new concepts on the nature of the stellar evolution that have been presented. These ideas are related to and very similar to the electrical universe model's version of how stars are created but with significant modifications based on the idea that stars are powered by external cosmic ray bombardment of their magnetic field instead of by electrical currents in the galaxy as in the electric universe model. Another key difference in the two ideas is that I am using Mark McCutcheon's basic idea on the nature of physics, Expansion Theory, which eliminates the concept of charge as we understand it because expanding electrons do not need an imaginary positive and negative center to flow as rivers of current as conceived of in this model. The third key difference between the electrical universe concept and the cosmic ray powered star model is the concept of hyperdense matter cores whereby the vast majority of stars have very dense cores at their hearts. This changes the mechanisms of stellar and planetary birth from the electrical universe's mechanism which involves z-pinch effects in plasma as discussed extensively here.
In both models planets and stars are born from other planets and stars usually involving large explosions such as nova and supernova. In the electrical universe model these explosions are caused by z-pinch effects in galactic electrical currents. In the cosmic ray powered star paradigm explosions are caused by instability in the hyperdense matter core of the star caused by pressure changes most likely due to melting of the core over time as the amount of energy in the magnetic field increases and/or magnetic and electrical overload caused by the increasing amount of energy of the field over time. Current conventional astrophysics, of course, believes that stars are powered from nuclear fusion and I deal with many of the problems with this theory in my core essay as well as in my cosmogenesis notes. Supernovas are caused in conventional astrophysics primarily because of the iron catastrophe in current nuclear fusion models whereby any attempt to fuse iron will result in a failure to generate additional energy and cause the star to go supernova.
The electrical universe model also discounts the existence of black holes believing active galactic nuclei are plasma effects of the galactic plasma currents in the galaxy (once again focusing on z-pinch effects if I remember correctly). The current cosmic ray model I have created incorporates very large stellar bodies which function as centers of galaxies, just not as infinitely dense singularities described by current astrophysics. I have termed these objects dark quasars if not active and quasars as active. Active galactic nuclei represent a midway point between a very active quasar and quiet dark quasar. In this understanding "black holes" at the center of galaxies are very large stars essentially that are putting out most of their energy in the non-visible upper band of the EM spectrum (microwave on up) and occasionally burst into very powerful states where they release massive amounts of energy like a normal star except in a massive way.
In the cosmic ray powered universe there is no upper limit to how large these dark quasars can get as long as more matter can be incorporated into them through absorbing other objects presumably (though I suggest other less plausible mechanisms of matter gain as well in my core essay). In this analogy of the cosmos, systems and cores just keep getting bigger up to infinity as we look at larger and larger slices of the cosmos.
Quasars would occasionally explode as very, very large supernovas that divide the quasar in two creating two new galaxies from the new cores. We would need to figure out a way to tell which galaxies we see out in space are in the process of dividing and which are in the process of colliding in this analysis. Also, another important assumption is that the primary means that stars and galaxies grow apart in the cosmic ray powered cosmos is radiative pressure from their light and cosmic rays. Such an idea would suggest that when quasars split up, the process of the galaxies separating out would generally be quiet slow, though the force of the explosion that creates the new core may push it out quiet far. I haven't done the math required to estimate, but observations of the galaxies with this idea in mind should be able to sort out what is what and how it's happening.
Additional ideas I discussed in my core essay deal with larger themes of Mark McCutcheon's Expansion Theory in light of the cosmic ray powered cosmic model. One of the issues that I considered was the possibility of different expansion pressure levels in different areas of the cosmos. This is not something Mark dealt with in his original theory but I believe it follows that depending on how the whole physical system is structured in light of the transdimensional structure of the cosmos in higher dimensions it might be possible to envision such a system where some regions of the cosmos had a different chemical periodic table and much higher densities of possible matter than others because the amount of expansion pressure would be much higher. I could not satisfy this level of analysis in the time I've had so far, but have introduced it as a concept that should be considered in an expanded cosmology hypothetically.
The issues with this idea resolve a problem I had with the idea that the cosmos had to only have one possible set of periodic tables. I believe Mark did deal with the idea that the rate of electron expansion could change in Expansion Theory in his original book by stating it may have been different in the past and could be different in the future. Such change, of course, suggests that different regions of space could hypothetically have different rates of expansion for the electron. I envisioned this on a very grand scale where the regions would be vast having the same general expansion pressure rate on the order of trillions of major galaxies, and there would be another universal region like this with a different rate nearby. A detailed study of my essay and Mark's book is required to understand what I am talking about exactly without me going into excruciating details right now.
I also considered the possibility that changes in expansion pressure could occur in smaller settings than the original version I thought of. We don't technically know enough to say whether or not different chemical systems exist outside of this solar system in the Milky Way. We don't know enough to say if smaller systems could exist at different expansion rates because we don't know enough about the mechanisms by which expansion is controlled. It is implausible in general that changes to what would appear to be the physical constants of the universe could be so easily altered in smaller regions of space or around smaller systems like galaxies, stars, or even planets, but we don't know enough about field theory to rule this out entirely. We need to know more about the relationship between expansion pressure, volume , space, and hypothetical transdimensional fields such as the 4th dimensional etheric I discuss in the core essay.
I am generally skeptical of the possibility of any overly weird outcome in these areas that I have thought about, so generally I believe that the physics and chemistry based on expansion pressure and the periodic table we know are the same in, at least, this galaxy, and probably for some great extent in the extra-galactic space away from this galaxy. I also believed that variations in expansion pressure would be very gradual and slow over the whole of a large area of space so that instead of having one area that was radically different from another, one galaxy might have one thousandth of one percent difference from the next one let's say. However this is a function of my scientific conservatism on the matter. We don't know what's out there and how it works and need alot of time to understand the new model before we can truly say what is possible with it.
Comparing what is known about z-pinch effects and using Mark's model of electron expansion, it would be possible to develop a physical mechanism explanation that shows why z-pinch effects do what they do. It clearly is something to do with the flow of electrons like that of a river moving mass through pressure. Once this idea is understood I think it will obvious what is happening from the new perspective.